Although there is research on the subject of pesticides from different angles - such as drift, toxicity, soil studies, health camps, health conditions that they cause - we have not found comparative studies on existing ordinances. As a consequence of this, the present investigation is carried out.
During the 1990s, under the presidencies of Carlos S. Menem (1989-1999), Argentina adopted neoliberalism as an economic, political and social model. Between 1991 and 1994, the national regulatory framework was transformed, in order to generate the necessary conditions for the development of the free movement of goods, services and capital. Regarding the agricultural sector, almost all taxes on exports were eliminated and the regulatory bodies that had allowed the coexistence of economically and socially heterogeneous actors were dismantled. (GRAS AND HERNÁNDEZ, 2014: 47)
In this context, RR (Roundup Ready®) soybeans, tolerant to glyphosate herbicide, were commercially released in 1996 and since then"Argentina was the figurehead with which genetically modified crops reached 24.5 million hectares planted in this last season." (PENGUE, 2016)
In relation to the advancement of the production of transgenics, the use of chemical preparations has increased exponentially in the production of agriculture in Argentina; between 1996 and 2015 the use of pesticides increased 423% (data from the Chamber of Agricultural Health and Fertilizers -CASAFE- prepared by the University Network of Environment and Health -REDUAS-).
There is a wide bibliography of studies from public universities that find connections between these compounds and the increase in different health problems in sprayed towns, such as cancer, thyroid problems, spontaneous abortions, respiratory and epidermal conditions, birth defects, etc.“The so-called 'fumigated towns', show a social reaction that is impossible to ignore and are the main emerging of an expansion over an uneven and terminal territory and that is reflected in the appearance of increasing cases of diseases linked to the potential use of pesticides "(PENGUE, 2016)
Over time, this production model has shown its impact on the environment and health, since"When entire fields are sprayed with glyphosate from the air (...) they harm both the production and the health of thousands of neighboring neighbors ..."(TEUBAL, 2006)
Drift is the deviation of the trajectory of the sprayed / fumigated broth droplets from the previously defined target. There are three drifts: the primary, the one that occurs at the time of fumigation and / or spraying (produced by different variables, among which the climatic ones are fundamental, as a factor external to the control of the operator of the applicator machine); the secondary one, that which is generated in the hours following the application; and the tertiary one that can occur weeks, months or years after application (leaching in streams of water, change to a gaseous state, accumulation in microorganisms or larger species, decomposition into metabolites, reaction with molecules from the environment, absorption, adsorption with substrates ground). Based on the recognition of the three drifts that we have developed, the definition of a minimum distance from spraying to populated centers should lead us to consider distances greater than 4,800 meters, which is the maximum distance that the smallest drop of a application in optimal climatic conditions. (TOMASONI: 2013)
By Daniela Dubois