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String theory, nothing has to do with shoe laces and let's not imagine a guide for knots with ropes and so on. This theory is part of Physics, in that part of physics that cannot be touched by hand but which focuses onexploration of the universe, and possible parallel universes. It is fascinating, not easy, but to be known at least in spans. At least not to make a fool of imagining shoe laces floating in the air.
String theory: what it is
String theory is explained in the books of theoretical physics, literally translated from English "string" which means "rope". It is constantly evolving as a theory and was born with the aim of reconciling quantum mechanics with general relativity even though Einstein also dealt with special relativity The goal would be to arrive at a sort of "theory of everything", dream of many.
We are working on it, step by step, on various fronts and also in parallel in different ways, as it should be.
We all start from a founding principle, that is, that matter, radiation and, under certain hypotheses, space and time are the manifestation of fundamental physical entities which, depending on the number of dimensions in which they develop, are called strings or p-brane. So, at the base of everything, of everything, are these phantom and hard to imagine strings.
String theory and quantum physics
In the field of quantum physics quantum field theory began to peep into the history of science at the beginning of the 20s of the last century the particles are associated with the energy quanta of the corresponding wave fields.
Carrying out numerous experiments in the following decades, he then came to consider how matter was composed of electrons, protons and neutrons to which to add many other particles considered unstable due to their spontaneous disintegration times of the order of a few millionths of a second. Other than unstable!
In this context, a technique called dei Feynamm diagrams, used to study and explain the interactions between particles that are often induced by exchanges of other particles. With these diagrams it is possible to connect the probability of reaction (cross section) to processes in which the reacting particles generate other particles in intermediate states.
These diagrams are useful, but when the interactions between particles we are going to consider are the strong ones, they don't work so well and it becomes necessary to invent something more effective and suitable. Here the String Theory, in 1968 from an intuition of the Italian physicist Gabriele Veneziano, even if they are Yoichiro Nambu, Holger Bech Nielsen and Leonard Susskind two years later to officially introduce it.
To continue the work came their other colleagues like John Schwarz and Joël Sherk which in 1974 obtained and introduced the graviton, a particle with spin equal to 2, e Michael Green and John Schwarz which in 1984 were able to explain all the phenomena of interaction with string theory, so much so that it began to become known, at least by name, even to non-experts.
String theory: parallel universes
With the String theory all elementary particles are intended as vibrational modes of strings so small that they cannot be distinguished from elementary particles. Let's imagine how small cords vibrating, both closed and open, vibrating creating all bosonic and fermionic particles known to date. They are a million times smaller than quarks and would be the ultimate constituents of matter, which is why it is practically impossible, at least for now, to observe them. When the strings vibrate, they can originate both matter and energy.
Thanks to String Theory, the existence of new dimensions and, consequently, of parallel universes, very different from the one we study with children's solar system. They are meant other dimensions beyond the 3 spatial and the temporal one that allow us to speak of new dimensions or parallel realities. To date they are the object of real study, before string theory they were only rumors considered delusional.
String theory: elegant universe
We speak of an "elegant" universe because of the solid and elegant mathematical basis that this theory has at the base, those in which it is lacking for obvious reasons, is the part of tests on an experimental level.
String theory: books
A reading not too much for scientists but certainly to be recommended to those who really want to deepen this issue, and also investigate what is theAntimatter, is "The shape of deep space. String theory and the geometry of hidden dimensions of the universe "of Shing-Tung Yau and Steve Nadis, also on sale on Amazon for 20 euros.
The first of the two authors, in 1976, conquered the Fields Medal, the Nobel Prize for Mathematicians. As imaginable, it was thanks to the fact that he was able to demonstrate the existence of some complex forms that we know today by his name. It is about invisible spaces but which, in part for this reason, may be essential for understand some of the best known and most important physical phenomena.
Reading "The shape of deep space”We can approach the String theory following step by step the path taken by those who formulated it, surprising the scientific community and also attracting criticism and perplexity. Some argued, and perhaps still mumble it, that what was imagined by Yau it was too good to be true.
That's why the string theory is considered revolutionary, able to trace a new vision of the Universe and to shuffle the cards in many fields that concern physics, mathematics and geometry. The idea is undoubtedly fascinating and this book is well understood. But it is better to first review which are theelementary subatomic particles.
Speaking of theories, have you ever heard of Game Theory?
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